Effects of zinc sources on cellular immune response, biochemical and hematological blood parameters in early lactation of Holstein dairy cows

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Graduated, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, University Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, University Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of zinc from different sources on hematological parameters of blood and immune response in early lactation of dairy cows. Thirty multiparous dairy cows randomly allocated to one of five dietary treatments in a complete randomized design. All cattle were fed a low Zn diet for 42 days prior to assignment to dietary treatments as a depletion phase. Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplement Zn), 2) Zn glycine complex (ZnGly), 3) Zn hydroxychloride complex (ZnHcl), 4) Zn oxide (ZnO), 5) Zn sulfate (ZnSO4). The Zn sources were added to provide 1500 mg/head/day of supplemental Zn. The result indicated that glucose, AST and ALT were not different between treatments. Zinc supplementation increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity in compare of control. The results indicated that Ca, P, Fe, and Cu were not affected by treatments. The used of different sources of zinc significantly increased serum zinc in compare control group. The used of zinc had not significantly effect on hematology of blood. Also, Swelling response following intradermal injection of phytohemoagglutinin was not affected by zinc sources. Therefore, the results of present study indicated that although used of 1500 mg/day/head zinc from different sources increased serum zinc, had not significantly onimmune response in dairy cattle.


Beck, F. W. , Prasad, A. S. , Kaplan, J. , Fitzgerald, J. T. , & Brewer, G. J. (1997). Changes in cytokine production and T cell subpopulations in experimentally induced zinc-deficient humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism272(6), E1002-E1007.
Cao, J. , Henry, P. R. , Guo, R. , Holwerda, R. A. , Toth, J. P. , Littell, R. C. , Miles, R,D. & Ammerman, C. B. (2000). Chemical characteristics and relative bioavailability of supplemental organic zinc sources for poultry and ruminants. Journal of animal science78(8), 2039-2054.
Chan, S. , Gerson, B. , & Subramaniam, S. (1998). The role of copper, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in nutrition and health. Clinics in laboratory medicine18(4), 673-685.
Chandra, G. , Aggarwal, A. , Singh, A. K. , & Kumar, M. (2014). Effect of vitamin E and zinc supplementation on liver enzymatic profile of pre-and post-partum Sahiwal cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences84(5), 507-510.
Cope, C. M. , Mackenzie, A. M. , Wilde, D. , & Sinclair, L. A. (2009). Effects of level and form of dietary zinc on dairy cow performance and health. Journal of dairy science92(5), 2128-2135.
Droke, E. A. , & Spears, J. W. (1993). In vitro and in vivo immunological measurements in growing lambs fed diets deficient, marginal or adequate in zinc. Journal of Nutritional Immunology2(1), 71-90.
Engle, T. E. , Nockels, C. F. , Kimberling, C. V. , Weaber, D. L. , & Johnson, A. B. (1997). Zinc repletion with organic or inorganic forms of zinc and protein turnover in marginally zinc-deficient calves. Journal of Animal Science75(11), 3074-3081.
Gholamrezaie Sani, L. ; Mohammadi, M. ; JalaliSendi, J. ; Abolghasemi, S. A. and Roostaie Ali Mehr, M. (2013). Extract and leaf powder effect of Artemisia annua on performance, cellular and humoral immunity in broilers. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 14(1): 15-20.
Herdt, T. H. , & Hoff, B. (2011). The use of blood analysis to evaluate trace mineral status in ruminant livestock. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice27(2), 255-283.
Jain, N. C. (1998). Essentials of Veterinary Hematology, 2nd ed. Lea and Febiger Publication, Philadelphia, pp. 65–68
Kincaid, R. L. (1999). Assessment of trace mineral status of ruminants: A review. In Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Science (Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 1-10).
Miller, W. J. , Pitts, W. J. , Clifton, C. M. , & Morton, J. D. (1965). Effects of zinc deficiency per se on feed efficiency, serum alkaline phosphatase, zinc in skin, behavior, greying, and other measurements in the Holstein calf. Journal of dairy science48(10), 1329-1334.
Nash, L. , Iwata, T. , Fernandes, G. , Good, R. A. , & Incefy, G. S. (1979). Effect of zinc deficiency on autologous rosette-forming cells. Cellular immunology48(1), 238-243.
Navarro, M. C. , Montilla, M. P. , Martín, A. , Jiménez, J. , & Utrilla, M. P. (1993). Free radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus tomentosus. Planta Medica59(04), 312-314.
Ott, E. A. , Smith, W. H. , Harrington, R. B. , Parker, H. E. , & Beeson, W. M. (1966). Zinc toxicity in ruminants. IV. Physiological changes in tissues of beef cattle. Journal of animal science25(2), 432-438.
Prasad, A. S. (2007). Zinc: mechanisms of host defense. The Journal of nutrition137(5), 1345-1349.
Prasad, A. S. , & Oberleas, D. O. N. A. L. D. (1971). Changes in activities of zinc-dependent enzymes in zinc-deficient tissues of rats. Journal of applied physiology31(6), 842-846.
Prasad, A. S. , Bao, B. , Beck, F. W. , & Sarkar, F. H. (2002). Zinc enhances the expression of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptors in HUT-78 cells by way of NF-κB activation. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine140(4), 272-289.
Raker, P. J. (1983). Zinc deficiency: a common immunodeficiency state. Survey of immunologic research2, 155-163.
SAS Institute. (2002). SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Release 9. 1. 3. SAS Inst. Inc. , Cary, NC.
Serfling, E. , Avots, A. , & Neumann, M. (1995). The architecture of the interleukin-2 promoter: a reflection of T lymphocyte activation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Gene Structure and Expression1263(3), 181-200.
Shakoori, A. R. , Butt, U. , Riffat, R. , & Aziz, F. (1994). Haematological and biochemical effects of danitol administered for two months in the blood and liver of rabbits. Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Zoologie80, 165-165.
Sobhanirad, S. , & Naserian, A. A. (2012). Effects of high dietary zinc concentration and zinc sources on hematology and biochemistry of blood serum in Holstein dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology177(3-4), 242-246.
Southern, L. L. , & Baker, D. H. (1983). Zinc toxicity, zinc deficiency and zinc-copper interrelationship in Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. The Journal of nutrition113(3), 688-696.
Spears, J. W. (1989). Zinc methionine for ruminants: relative bioavailability of zinc in lambs and effects of growth and performance of growing heifers. Journal of Animal Science67(3), 835-843.
Spears, J. W. , & Kegley, E. B. (2002). Effect of zinc source (zinc oxide vs zinc proteinate) and level on performance, carcass characteristics, and immune response of growing and finishing steers. Journal of Animal science80(10), 2747-2752.
Spears, J. W. (1996). Organic trace minerals in ruminant nutrition. Animal feed science and technology58(1-2), 151-163.
Spears, J. W., Schlegel, P., Seal, M. C., & Lloyd, K. E. (2004). Bioavailability of zinc from zinc sulfate and different organic zinc sources and their effects on ruminal volatile fatty acid proportions. Livestock Production Science90(2-3), 211-217.
Tanaka, Y. S. I. T., Shiozawa, S., Morimoto, I., & Fujita, T. (1990). Role of Zinc in Interleukin 2 (IL‐2)‐ Mediated T‐Cell Activation. Scandinavian journal of immunology31(5), 547-552.
Underwood, E. J. (1999). The mineral nutrition of livestock. 3rd edition. Cabi Publishing.